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Light field Display Architecture


Light-field Display Architecture

A Light-field Display (LfD) projects synthetically rendered light rays with all the essential depth and color cues that enable viewers to see a natural 3D scene. The LfD converts 3D scene data into light rays through the light-field display radiance image computation subsystem.  The radiance image is a raster/pixel representation of the light field, where every pixel represents the position and orientation of a light ray passing through the display surface. The radiance image is converted into actual light rays by an array of ultra-high resolution spatial light modulators (SLMs).   The light rays are then angularly distributed by a microlens array without regard to the number of viewers, viewer position, or viewer gaze direction.

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Light field Display Architecture


Light-field Display Architecture

A Light-field Display (LfD) projects synthetically rendered light rays with all the essential depth and color cues that enable viewers to see a natural 3D scene. The LfD converts 3D scene data into light rays through the light-field display radiance image computation subsystem.  The radiance image is a raster/pixel representation of the light field, where every pixel represents the position and orientation of a light ray passing through the display surface. The radiance image is converted into actual light rays by an array of ultra-high resolution spatial light modulators (SLMs).   The light rays are then angularly distributed by a microlens array without regard to the number of viewers, viewer position, or viewer gaze direction.

Light field Display Architecture


Light field Display Architecture


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Light field Display Optics Capabilities


Light-field Display Hogel Optics

In a light-field display (LfD), optical elements are used to project light emanating from a spatial light modulator (SLM) towards a viewer or viewers.  A correct and optimized optical design is absolutely critical for preserving detail within the light-field display 3D aerial projection.  The intent of a good optical design is that it not be the limiting factor in the quality of the projected 3D image.

Light field Display Optics Capabilities


Light-field Display Hogel Optics

In a light-field display (LfD), optical elements are used to project light emanating from a spatial light modulator (SLM) towards a viewer or viewers.  A correct and optimized optical design is absolutely critical for preserving detail within the light-field display 3D aerial projection.  The intent of a good optical design is that it not be the limiting factor in the quality of the projected 3D image.

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Light field Display Photonics


Light-field Display Photonics

The purpose of light-field photonics is to convert a pixel/raster image (radiance image) representation of light rays into actual rays of light. Therefore, pixel density of the photonics subsystem is crucial to high-fidelity light-field images.   While a high-resolution 4K UHD TV has pixels that are ~330 µm and is intended to be viewed from across a room, the light-field display technology employed at FoVI3D has 5-10 µm pixels and is designed to be viewed and interacted with at arm’s length.  Therefore, a single light-field display may have hundreds of millions of pixels/rays.

Light field Display Photonics


Light-field Display Photonics

The purpose of light-field photonics is to convert a pixel/raster image (radiance image) representation of light rays into actual rays of light. Therefore, pixel density of the photonics subsystem is crucial to high-fidelity light-field images.   While a high-resolution 4K UHD TV has pixels that are ~330 µm and is intended to be viewed from across a room, the light-field display technology employed at FoVI3D has 5-10 µm pixels and is designed to be viewed and interacted with at arm’s length.  Therefore, a single light-field display may have hundreds of millions of pixels/rays.

Light field Display Photonics


Light field Display Photonics


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Light field Display Multi-View Computation


Multi-view Processing Unit

FoVI3D designs electronics for every element of the Light-field display infrastructure. This includes:

A specialized Multi-view Graphics Processing Unit (MvPU) used to render the light-field radiance image at a reduced SWaP-C over a traditional CPU/GPU rendering solution.

Data distribution electronics that act as an interface between graphics rendering engines and our light field display technology.

Photonics drivers and elements that convert bytes to photons.

Anything and everything else related to moving light-field data.

Light field Display Multi-View Computation


Multi-view Processing Unit

FoVI3D designs electronics for every element of the Light-field display infrastructure. This includes:

A specialized Multi-view Graphics Processing Unit (MvPU) used to render the light-field radiance image at a reduced SWaP-C over a traditional CPU/GPU rendering solution.

Data distribution electronics that act as an interface between graphics rendering engines and our light field display technology.

Photonics drivers and elements that convert bytes to photons.

Anything and everything else related to moving light-field data.

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Light field Display Rendering


Light-field Rendering

In the context of the light-field display, light-field rendering is the process by which the synthetic light-field radiance image is rendered. The light-field radiance image is a raster description of a light-field where pixels represent the origin, direction, and intensity of light rays within the light-field. Whereas, a light-field camera captures the light-field radiance image by segmenting incoming light through a micro-lens array, thus preserving spatial and angular details of rays in the form of pixels, the light-field display computes a synthetic radiance image from a 3D scene/model and projects the radiance image through a micro-lens array to construct a 3D aerial image. Binocular disparity, occlusion, specular highlights, gradient shading, and other expected depth cues within the 3D aerial image are correct from the viewer’s perspective as in the natural real-world light-field.

Light field Display Rendering


Light-field Rendering

In the context of the light-field display, light-field rendering is the process by which the synthetic light-field radiance image is rendered. The light-field radiance image is a raster description of a light-field where pixels represent the origin, direction, and intensity of light rays within the light-field. Whereas, a light-field camera captures the light-field radiance image by segmenting incoming light through a micro-lens array, thus preserving spatial and angular details of rays in the form of pixels, the light-field display computes a synthetic radiance image from a 3D scene/model and projects the radiance image through a micro-lens array to construct a 3D aerial image. Binocular disparity, occlusion, specular highlights, gradient shading, and other expected depth cues within the 3D aerial image are correct from the viewer’s perspective as in the natural real-world light-field.

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Light field Display Calibration


Light-field Display Calibration

All types of displays (2D or 3D) require calibration.  Light-field displays are no different.  The aggregation of millions of tiny rays of light into a high-fidelity 3D aerial image is no trivial task.  Even the smallest misalignments in the subsystems will interfere with the intended distribution of light rays, introducing blur into the 3D aerial image.

To produce a crisp, high-fidelity light-field projection, FoVI3D has developed a patented process to calibrate light-field displays.   This complex calibration process analyzes thousands of images captured from multiple perspectives and applies advanced algorithms to optimize the light-field projection through a series of spatial and color transforms.

Light field Display Calibration


Light-field Display Calibration

All types of displays (2D or 3D) require calibration.  Light-field displays are no different.  The aggregation of millions of tiny rays of light into a high-fidelity 3D aerial image is no trivial task.  Even the smallest misalignments in the subsystems will interfere with the intended distribution of light rays, introducing blur into the 3D aerial image.

To produce a crisp, high-fidelity light-field projection, FoVI3D has developed a patented process to calibrate light-field displays.   This complex calibration process analyzes thousands of images captured from multiple perspectives and applies advanced algorithms to optimize the light-field projection through a series of spatial and color transforms.

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Light field Display Metrology


Light-field Display Metrology

There can be no acceptance of a display technology without standardization.  FoVI3D, with support from members of the International Committee of Display Metrology (ICDM), is defining light-field metrology metrics and developing a Light-field Metrology Application (LMA) system that automates the collection and qualification of light-field displays in four steps:

1. Projection: A series of 3D metrology reference models are rendered and projected within the 3D display visualization volume.

2. Capture: The projected 3D references are imaged using a camera system from multiple perspectives.

3. Quantization: The captured images are analyzed and spatially decomposed into an appropriate 3D voxel database.

4. Qualification:  The final phase of the metrology process is the careful summation and analysis of the performance experiments to create metrology metrics and reports. 

Light field Display Metrology


Light-field Display Metrology

There can be no acceptance of a display technology without standardization.  FoVI3D, with support from members of the International Committee of Display Metrology (ICDM), is defining light-field metrology metrics and developing a Light-field Metrology Application (LMA) system that automates the collection and qualification of light-field displays in four steps:

1. Projection: A series of 3D metrology reference models are rendered and projected within the 3D display visualization volume.

2. Capture: The projected 3D references are imaged using a camera system from multiple perspectives.

3. Quantization: The captured images are analyzed and spatially decomposed into an appropriate 3D voxel database.

4. Qualification:  The final phase of the metrology process is the careful summation and analysis of the performance experiments to create metrology metrics and reports. 

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